What is Molecule? Atomicity, Examples, Types


“A molecule is the smallest particle of a pure substance which can exist independently”.
Molecules may contain one or more atoms.

Examples of Molecules:

  • Carbon dioxide – CO2
  • Water – H2O.
  • Oxygen we breathe into our lungs – O2
  • Sugar – C12H22O11
  • Glucose – C6H12O6
  • Nitrous oxide – “Laughing gas” – N2O.
  • Acetic acid – part of vinegar – CH3COOH.


“The number of atoms present in a molecule is called atomicity”.
Size: The size of the molecules are bigger than atoms. They depend upon the number of atoms present in them and their shapes.

• Macromolecules

“Some molecules are so big that they are called macromolecules”. For example, Haemoglobin is a macromolecule found in the blood. It helps to carry oxygen from the lungs to all parts of our body. Each molecule of haemoglobin is made up of nearly 10,000 atoms and it is 68,000 times heavier than a hydrogen atom.

Types of Molecule:

There are two types of molecules depending upon the number and types of atoms.

1. Type of Molecule depending upon No of Atoms:

Molecules may be Monoatomic (containing 1 atom e.g. H, K ), Diatomic (containing 2 atoms e.g. O2, N2, Cl2), Triatomic (containing 3 atoms O3, CO3) etc.

2. Type of Molecule depending upon Kind of Atoms:

Molecules of elements may contain one, two or more types of atoms. For example He, Cl2, O3, P4, S8. On the other hand, molecules of compounds consist of different kinds of atoms. For example,

  • HCl
  • NH3
  • H2SO4
  • C6H12O6
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